What Happened on July 9 in Canadian History?

by oaeen
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Final Report

Canada’s history is rich and diverse, with many significant events that have shaped the nation’s development. July 9 is a date that has witnessed numerous pivotal moments in Canadian history, spanning various realms such as politics, culture, military affairs, and social progress. This article delves into key events that occurred on July 9, offering a detailed examination of their historical context and lasting impact.

1755: The Deportation of the Acadians

One of the earliest and most poignant events in Canadian history associated with July 9 occurred in 1755 with the beginning of the deportation of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval or Le Grand Dérangement.

The Acadians were French settlers in the Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. By the mid-18th century, Acadia had become a contested territory between the British and French empires. During the French and Indian War (part of the larger Seven Years’ War), British authorities sought to neutralize the perceived threat posed by the Acadians, who were suspected of sympathizing with the French.

Starting on July 9, 1755, the British began forcibly deporting the Acadians from their homeland. Over 10,000 Acadians were expelled, many of whom suffered greatly during their displacement. The deportation had a profound impact on the Acadian community and the cultural landscape of the region. Today, the Acadian people and their descendants continue to celebrate their heritage and remember the hardships endured during the Great Upheaval.

1816: The Battle of Seven Oaks

On July 9, 1816, the Battle of Seven Oaks took place near present-day Winnipeg, Manitoba. This conflict was part of the larger struggle for control over the fur trade in what is now Western Canada.

The battle was fought between the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) and the North West Company (NWC), two rival fur trading companies. Tensions had been escalating for years as both companies vied for dominance in the lucrative fur trade. The conflict at Seven Oaks was triggered by disputes over land and resources in the Red River Colony.

The Battle of Seven Oaks resulted in a decisive victory for the Métis forces allied with the North West Company. It highlighted the deep-seated rivalries and the complex relationships between Indigenous peoples, European settlers, and trading companies. The aftermath of the battle eventually led to the merger of the HBC and NWC in 1821, which helped to stabilize the fur trade in the region.

1877: Treaty 7 Signed

On July 9, 1877, Treaty 7 was signed between the Canadian government and several Indigenous nations in what is now southern Alberta. This treaty was part of the broader series of Numbered Treaties that aimed to facilitate the settlement and development of the Canadian West.

Treaty 7 was signed by representatives of the Blackfoot Confederacy, the Tsuu T’ina, and the Stoney Nakoda. The treaty stipulated the cession of vast tracts of Indigenous land to the Crown in exchange for reserves, annuities, and other promises. These treaties were negotiated during a period of rapid expansion and settlement by European settlers, driven by the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the pursuit of agricultural development.

The signing of Treaty 7 had far-reaching consequences for the Indigenous peoples of the region. While it facilitated the expansion and economic development of Canada, it also resulted in the displacement and marginalization of Indigenous communities. The terms and implementation of the treaty have been the subject of ongoing disputes and calls for reconciliation. Today, Treaty 7 remains a significant element of the historical and cultural landscape of Alberta.

1937: The Formation of Trans-Canada Airlines

On July 9, 1937, Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA) was established, marking a significant milestone in the development of Canada’s aviation industry.

Trans-Canada Airlines, which later became Air Canada, was created as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railways (CNR). Its formation was part of a broader effort to develop a national airline that could connect Canada’s vast and remote regions. The establishment of TCA was also influenced by the growing importance of aviation for both commercial and strategic purposes in the years leading up to World War II.

TCA’s inaugural flight took place on September 1, 1937, from Vancouver to Seattle. Over the following decades, TCA expanded its routes and services, becoming a vital component of Canada’s transportation infrastructure. The airline played a crucial role in linking the country’s disparate regions and fostering economic growth. Today, Air Canada, the successor to TCA, remains the nation’s largest airline and a symbol of Canada’s pioneering spirit in aviation.

1971: The Establishment of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)

On July 9, 1971, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) was formally established. This independent public authority was created to regulate and supervise the broadcasting and telecommunications industries in Canada.

The CRTC was formed during a period of rapid growth and technological change in the media and communications sectors. The commission was tasked with ensuring that Canadian content and cultural values were promoted and protected amidst increasing foreign influence, particularly from the United States. It was also responsible for fostering competition and innovation in the telecommunications industry.

The CRTC has played a crucial role in shaping Canada’s media landscape, implementing policies to support Canadian programming and regulate broadcasting standards. It has also overseen the development of the telecommunications industry, ensuring that Canadians have access to reliable and affordable services. The CRTC’s work continues to be vital in navigating the challenges of the digital age and maintaining a vibrant and diverse media environment in Canada.

1988: The Canadian Multiculturalism Act

On July 9, 1988, the Canadian Multiculturalism Act was passed by the Parliament of Canada. This act was a significant milestone in the recognition and promotion of multiculturalism as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society.

The passage of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act was the culmination of decades of efforts to embrace and celebrate the diverse cultural heritage of Canada’s population. The act formalized the government’s commitment to promoting multiculturalism and ensuring that all Canadians, regardless of their ethnic or cultural background, could participate fully in national life.

The Canadian Multiculturalism Act reinforced Canada’s reputation as a diverse and inclusive society. It has provided a framework for government policies and programs that support cultural diversity and integration. The act continues to influence Canadian society, shaping the nation’s approach to immigration, citizenship, and social cohesion.

1992: The First National Aboriginal Day

On July 9, 1992, the first National Aboriginal Day (now known as National Indigenous Peoples Day) was celebrated in Canada. This day was established to recognize and celebrate the cultures and contributions of Indigenous peoples in Canada.

The establishment of National Aboriginal Day was part of a broader movement towards reconciliation and recognition of the rights and heritage of Indigenous peoples in Canada. It was a response to longstanding demands from Indigenous communities for greater acknowledgment and respect for their cultures and histories.

National Indigenous Peoples Day has become an important occasion for Canadians to learn about and celebrate the rich cultural traditions and achievements of Indigenous peoples. It serves as a reminder of the need for ongoing efforts towards reconciliation and the recognition of Indigenous rights. The day has helped to foster greater understanding and respect between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians.

2005: The Civil Marriage Act

On July 9, 2005, the Civil Marriage Act received Royal Assent, making Canada the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide.

The passage of the Civil Marriage Act followed years of advocacy and legal battles by LGBTQ+ activists and organizations. Prior to the act, several provinces and territories had already recognized same-sex marriage, but there was no national legislation ensuring equal marriage rights across Canada.

The Civil Marriage Act represented a significant step forward in the fight for LGBTQ+ rights in Canada. It affirmed the principles of equality and non-discrimination and provided same-sex couples with the same legal recognition and protections as opposite-sex couples. The act also reinforced Canada’s commitment to human rights and social justice.

2015: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Final Report

On July 9, 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) released its final report, documenting the history and lasting impact of the residential school system on Indigenous peoples in Canada.

The TRC was established as part of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, which sought to address the harms caused by the residential school system. For over a century, Indigenous children were forcibly removed from their families and communities and placed in residential schools, where they were subjected to abuse and attempts to assimilate them into Euro-Canadian culture.

The TRC’s final report contained 94 Calls to Action, aimed at redressing the legacy of residential schools and advancing the process of reconciliation. The report has had a profound impact on Canadian society, prompting increased awareness and dialogue about the history and ongoing effects of colonialism. It has also led to concrete actions by governments, organizations, and individuals to address the injustices faced by Indigenous peoples.


July 9 is a date that has witnessed a wide array of significant events in Canadian history. From the early days of colonial struggles and treaties with Indigenous nations to modern advancements in multiculturalism, civil rights, and reconciliation, the events of July 9 reflect the diverse and dynamic history of Canada. Each of these events has contributed to the nation’s evolving identity and its commitment to principles of equality, justice, and inclusion. By examining these historical moments, we gain a deeper understanding of the complexities and nuances of Canada’s past and its ongoing journey towards a more equitable and inclusive future.

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